Geddes, L.A., Hoff, H.E. and McCrady, J.D. Electroanesthesia in the horse. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds). Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanaesthesia. International Congress Series No. 136. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, Pp. 73-80, 1967.
The authors demonstrated the parameters of electrode size and current density necessary to produce burns via electrical stimulation of the skin. With electrodes similar to or smaller than those of most CES electrodes and with much greater current loads across the skin, they observed no burns. The discussion centered on the heat dissipation to be expected from polarized impedances when constant or controlled current sources are used.