CES & MET Research

For a complete bibliography of clinical research studies on Alpha-Stim for pain, anxiety, insomnia, and depression, visit alpha-stim.com.


Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel, Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the Horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. 2002.

Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K*, Bruce J*, Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and *University Medical Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA. The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000. Download abstract

Culp, L.P., Skarda, R.T. and Muir, W.W. Comparisons of the effects of acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 66(8):1364-70, 2005.

Robert, Claude, Limoge, Aymé and Stinus, Luis. Transcranial electrical stimulation (Limoge’s currents) potentiates the inhibition of righting reflex induced by droperidol in rats. Brain Research. 822(10-2):132-141, 1999. (France)

Little, Bert and Patterson, Margaret A. Embryofetal effects of neuroelectric therapy (NET). Electro and Magnetobiology. 15(1):1-8, 1996.

Mantz, J., Azerad, J., Limoge, A. and Desmonts, J.M. Transcranial electrical stimulation with Limoge’s currents decreases halothane requirements in rats. Evidence for the involvement of endogenous opioids. Anesthesiology. 76:253-60, 1992.

Krupisky, E.M., Katznelson, Ya.S., Lebedev, V.P., Flood, N.V., Patterson, M.A., Lipton, J.M. and Kozlowski, G.P. Transcranial electrostimulation (TES) of brain opioid structures (BOS): experimental treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and clinical application. Presented at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, New Orleans, November 10-15, 1991.

Dougherty, P.M., Dong, W.Q., Faillace, L.A. and Dafny, N. Transcranial electrical stimulation attenuates abrupt morphine withdrawal in rats assayed by remote computerized quantification of multiple motor behavior indices. Eur J Pharmacol. 175:187-95, 1990. (Netherlands)

Stinus, Louis, Auriacombe, Marc, Tignol, Jean, Limoge, Aimé and Le Moal, Michel. Transcranial electrical stimulation with high frequency intermittent current (Limoge’s) potentiates opiate-induced analgesia: blind studies. Pain. 42(3):351-363, 1990.

Warner, R., Hudson-Howard, L., Johnston, C. and Skolnick, M. Serotonin involvement in analgesia induced by transcranial electrostimulation. Life Sciences. 46:1131-8, 1990.

Wilson, O.B., Hamilton, R.F., Warner, R.L., Johnston, C.M., deFriece, R., Harter, L., Schweitzer, C., Talaverra, J., Hymel, C.M. and Skolnick, M.H. The influence of electrical variables on analgesia produced by low current transcranial electrostimulation of rats. Anesth Analg. 68:673-81, 1989.

Capel, I.D., Pinnock, M.H., Withey, N.J., Williams, D.C. and Patterson, M.A. The effect of electrostimulation on barbituate-induced sleeping times in rats. Drug Development Research, 2:73-79, 1982.

Capel, I.D., Williams, D.C., Davey, R.W. and Patterson, M.A.. Amelioration of restraint stress by electrostimulation. IRCS Medical Science: Biochemistry, Environmental Biology and Medicine, Nervous System, Pharmacology, Psychology and Psychiatry. 7:634, 1979.

Hornstein, S.R., Filho, R.A., Toledo, M. and Spirck, C.N. Preliminary data on a new method for lithium therapy. Rev Bras Pesqui Med Biol. 10:249-54, 1977. (Brazil)

Jordan, Eric J. and Morris, David. Evaluation of the electrosleep machine. Diseases of the Nervous System. 36(12):661-665, 1975.

Richter, Ward R., Zouhar, Raymond L., Tatsuno, Jiro, Smith, Robert H. and Cullen, Stuart C. Electron microscopy of the macaca mulatta brain after repeated applications of electric current. Anesthesiology. 36(4):374-377, 1972.

Reigel, D.H., Larson, Sanford J., Sances Jr., Anthony, Christman, Norbert, Dallmann, Donald and Henschel, Ernest O. Effects of electrosleep currents on gastric physiology. In Reynolds, David V. and Sjoberg, Anita (Eds.) Neuroelectric Research. Springfield, Charles Thomas. 24:226-229, 1971.

Pozos, Robert S., Richardson, Alfred W. and Kaplan, Harold M. Electroanesthesia: A proposed physiologic mechanism. In Reynolds, David V. and Anita Sjoberg (Eds.) Neuro-electric Research. Charles Thomas, Springfield, Pp. 110-113, 1971.

Singh, Baldev, Chhina, G.S., Anand, B.K., Bopari, M.S. and Neki, J.S. Sleep and consciousness mechanism with special reference to electrosleep. Armed Forces Medical Journal India (New Delhi). 27(3):292-297, 1971.

Zuperku, E.J., Hosek, R.S., Larson, Sanford J., Reigel, D.H., Sances Jr, Anthony and Henschel, Ernest O. Studies during electrotherapeutic sleep. In Reynolds, David V. and Anita Sjoberg (Eds.) Neuroelectric Research. Charles Thomas, Springfield, Pp. 235- 241, 1971.

Austen, Burton G. Current distribution in subcortical regions of the cat’s brain during electrosleep. In Reynolds, David V. and Anita Sjorberg (Eds), Neuroelectric Research. Springfield, Charles Thomas. 28:262-266, 1971.

Pozos, Robert S., Strack, L.E., White, R.K. and Richardson, Alfred W. Electrosleep versus electroconvulsive therapy. In Reynolds, David V. and Sjoberg, Anita E. (Eds), Neuroelectric Research. Charles Thomas: Springfield, 23:221-225, 1971.

Jarzembski, William B., Larson, Sanford J. and Sances Jr, Anthony. Evaluation of specific cerebral impedance and cerebral current density. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 170:476-490, 1970.

Reigel, D.H., Dallmann, D.E., Christman, N.T., Hamilton, L.H., Zuperku, E.J., Henschel, E.O., Larson, S.J., and Sances Jr, A. Physiological effects of electrotherapeutic currents in the primate and man. In Wageneder, F.M., and St. Schuy (Eds.), Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 158-165, 1970.

Tatsuno, Jiro, Marsoner, Hermann J. and Fukuda, Hiroshi. The effects of diffuse currents on focal epileptic discharges. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.) Electrotherap-eutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 93-101, 1970.

Wulfsohn, N.L. and Waldron, L. The importance of trains of current producing electrosleep. In Wageneder, F. M. and St. Schuy (Eds.), Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, Pp. 212-216, 1970.

Wilson, A.S., Reigel, D., Unger, G.F., Larson, S.J. and Sances Jr., A. Gastric secretion before and after electrotherapeutic sleep in executive monkeys. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.), Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 198-206, 1970.

Sommer, H. and Kriebel, J. Neuropathological investigations of electrosleep in animal experiments (Rabbits). In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.) Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 169-174, 1970.

Titaeva, M.A. Changes in the functional state of the central nervous system under the influence of a pulse current as used in electrosleep. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.) Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanaesthesia. International Congress Series, No. 136. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, Pp. 175-180, 1967.

Siegesmund, K.A., Sances Jr, A. and Larson, S.J. The effects of electrical currents on synaptic vesicles in monkey cortex. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.), Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanaesthesia. International Congress Series No. 136. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, Pp. 31-33, 1967.

Pocta, J., Lebl, M. and Hanka, R. The autonomic and stress reactions during electrosleep. In Wageneder, F.M and St. Schuy (Eds) Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanaesthesia. International Congress series, No. 136. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, Pp. 342-344, 1967.

Geddes, L.A., Hoff, H.E. and McCrady, J.D. Electroanesthesia in the horse. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds). Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanaesthesia. International Congress Series No. 136. Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, Pp. 73-80, 1967.



Jaffe LF, Vanable JW. Electric fields and wound healing. Clin Dermatol 1984; 2:34-44.

Barker AT, Jaffe LF, Banable JW. The glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol 1982; 242:R358-66.

Alvarez OM, et al. The healing of superficial skin wounds is stimulated by external electrical current. J Invest Dermatol 1983;81:144-48.

Mulder GD. Treatment of open wounds with electric stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991;72:375-77.

Carey LC, Lepely D. Effect of continuous direct electric current on healing wounds. SurgForum 1962;13:33-35.

Falanga V. Electrical stimulation increases the expression of fibroblast receptors for transforming growth factor-beta. J Invest Dermatol 1987;88:488.

Assimacopoulos D. Wound healing promotion by the use of negative electric current. Ann Surg 1968: 34: 423-31.

Wolcott LE, Wheeler PC, Hardwicke HM, et al. Accelerated wound healing of skin ulcers by electrotherapy. South Med J 1969; 62:795-801

Carley PJ, Wainapel SF. Electrotherapy for acceleration of wound healing: Low intensity direct current. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985; 66:443-446.

Rowley BA, Mckenna JM, Chase GR, Wolcott LE. The influence of electrical current on an infecting microorganism in wounds. Ann NY Acad Sci 1974:238:543-551.

Weiss DS, et al. Electrical stimulation and wound healing. Arch Dermatol 1990:126:222-2325.

Barron JJ, Jacobson WE. Treatment of decubitus ulcers: a new approach. Min Med 1985;68:103-5.

Lundeberg TC, Eriksson SV, Malm M. Electrical nerve stimulation improves healing of diabetic ulcers. Ann Plastic Surg 1998;29:328-31.

Dayton PD, Palladino SJ. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous ulcerations: a literature review. J A Podiatr Med Assoc 1989;79:318-21.

Becker RO. The Body Electric. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985.

Frick A, McCauley D. Microcurrent Electrical Therapy. J Eq Vet Sci 2005;Oct 418-422.



North RB, et al. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic, intractable pain: experience over two decades. Neurosurgery 1993; 32:384-395.

LeDoux MS, Langford KH. Spinal cord stimulation for the failed back syndrome. Spine 1993: 18:191-4.

Becker RO. The Body Electric. William Morrow, New York, 1985.



Stanish WD, et al. The use of electricity in ligament and tendon repair. Physician and Sportsmed 1985; 13:109-116.

Stanish WD, Lai A. New concepts of rehabilitation following anterior cruciate reconstruction. Clin, SportsMed 1993; Jan; 12(1):25-58.

Delitto A, Snyder- Mackler L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Phys Therapy 1990; 70:158-164.

Nessler JP, Mass DP. Direct current electrical stimulation of tendon healing in vitro. Clin Ortho 1985; 217:303.

Barden RM, Sinkora GL. Bone stimulators for fusions and fractures. Orthoped Nursing 1991; 26:89-103.

Lavin LS, Grodzinsky AJ. Current concepts review. Electrical stimulation of bone repair. J Bone Joint Surg 1987; 69-A: 626-630.

Spadaro JA. Electrically stimulated bone growth in animals and man. Review of the literature. Clin Orthop 1977; 122:325-332.

Lavine LS et al. Electric enhancement of bone healing. Science 1972; 175:1118-21.

Black J. Electrical stimulation of hard and soft tissue in animal models. Clin Plast Surg. 1985 April; 12(2):243-57.

Stefan S, Sansen W, Mulier JC. Experimental study on the electrical impedance of bone and the effect of direct current on the healing of fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1976 Oct; (120):264-7.




Teh-Ching Chu, Potter DE. Evidence that Microcurrent has a Neuro-protective effect in the treatment of glaucoma. J Oc Pharm and Ther, Vol. 8, No4, 2002; 293-305.