Stanish WD, et al. The use of electricity in ligament and tendon repair. Physician and Sportsmed 1985; 13:109-116.

The authors compared the effects of immobilization, early motion, and electrical stimulation on injured tendons in dogs and found that the healed tendons that had had electrical implants were much stronger. Therefore, they have dramatically altered their rehabilitation program for ligament and tendon repair. They implant electrical stimulators during surgery, and the patients are mobilized after one day. The authors say that while patients treated by traditional techniques are experiencing muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, and discomfort, their patients are enjoying greater mobility and earlier return to activities.