Singh, Baldev, Chhina, G.S., Anand, B.K., Bopari, M.S. and Neki, J.S. Sleep and consciousness mechanism with special reference to electrosleep. Armed Forces Medical Journal India (New Delhi). 27(3):292-297, 1971.

4 normal human subjects showed increased alpha index on EEG immediately following CES (30 to 45 minutes), which culminated in spindle and slow sleep after a variable interval. In 6 patients suffering from subjective insomnia the passage of current resulted in increased alpha activity and a subjective feeling of well-being but was not accompanied by either slow or paradoxical sleep. No side effects were reported.

In 10 monkeys with electrodes implanted in the brain the results showed that the cortical EEG activity either had increased spindle or it gave high voltage slow wave paroxysmal activity following CES induction. The increased slowing was also observed in the periaqueductal grey of the brain stem and lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. The caudate, intralaminar thalamic nuclei and hippocampus showed no consistent changes. The tentative conclusion drawn by the authors was: 1) The EEG record tends to show more alpha activity after CES in human subjects, 2) Monkeys go into slow sleep showing sleep spindles and slow waves, 3) No paradoxical sleep has been recorded in animals. The authors also stated that the depth electrodes in monkeys seem to favor the contention that CES has an initial effect on the periaqueductal region and then it spreads to other regions of the brain.