Reigel, D.H., Dallmann, D.E., Christman, N.T., Hamilton, L.H., Zuperku, E.J., Henschel, E.O., Larson, S.J., and Sances Jr, A. Physiological effects of electrotherapeutic currents in the primate and man. In Wageneder, F.M., and St. Schuy (Eds.), Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 158-165, 1970.

Studies were completed on squirrel monkeys, macaque monkeys and 15 human volunteers. Measures studied were somatosensory evoked potentials, visual evoked potentials, electroretinograms, electrocorticograms, electromyographic potentials, electrocardiograms, respiratory rate, and gastric acid. For the animal studies pulse type currents from 2.5 to 80 Hz were used. For the human studies, pulsed currents of 100 – 200 A intensity and 5 Hz were used. They summarized: “Neurophysiologic, cardiorespiratory and gastric secretory physiology was observed in man and primate during CES. Visual and somatosensory evoked potentials were not significantly altered during and after CES in the primates. The EMG and ECG suggested changes compatible with relaxation in the primates. Respiration and EKG remained stable in both humans and primates. Total gastric acid output in primates is significantly reduced by CES. These studies suggest that CES may be of therapeutic value.”