Krupisky, E.M., Katznelson, Ya.S., Lebedev, V.P., Flood, N.V., Patterson, M.A., Lipton, J.M. and Kozlowski, G.P. Transcranial electrostimulation (TES) of brain opioid structures (BOS): experimental treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and clinical application. Presented at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, New Orleans, November 10-15, 1991.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) was induced in rats. Noninvasive CES increased the -endorphin level in rat cerebrospinal fluid from 15.93  2.17 to 53.25  6.1 pmol/ml and met-enkephalin from 3.61  1.39 to 7.86  0.94 pmol/ml. Marked therapeutic effect of CES was also demonstrated in this animal model. Clinical double-blind placebo-controlled studies showed that CES was an effective method in the treatment of AWS in patients. After the CES treatment in AWS patients, the -endorphin concentration in plasma rose from 5.86  0.72 to 10.66  0.65 pmol/L. There was a threefold increase in -endorphin concentration after just 1 CES treatment.