Pozos, Robert S., Richardson, Alfred W. and Kaplan, Harold M. Electroanesthesia: A proposed physiologic mechanism. In Reynolds, David V. and Anita Sjoberg (Eds.) Neuro-electric Research. Charles Thomas, Springfield, Pp. 110-113, 1971.

The authors used both electoanesthesia and CES current levels along with reserpine, anoxia, L-dopa, atropine and physostigmine in mongrel dogs to elucidate the mechanisms of action from electrical stimulation to the head. Their findings suggested that CES releases dopamine in the basal ganglia, and that the overall physiological effects appear to beĀ  nticholinergic and catecholamine-like in action, and that some form of acidosis or a concomitant of this state is implicated in the mechanism of action.