Spadaro JA. Electrically stimulated bone growth in animals and man. Review of the literature. Clin Orthop 1977; 122:325-332.

The literature on the electrical stimulation of bone growth and fracture healing has been increasing exponentially in recent years. About 95 per cent are positive reports despite an extraordinarily wide selection of experimental techniques and models. Fourteen research groups report that electrical currents stimulated fracture healing with few if any complications in a total of 595 patients. The mechanisms of action and ideal technique for applying stimulation has yet to be determined.