Black J. Electrical stimulation of hard and soft tissue in animal models. Clin Plast Surg. 1985 April; 12(2):243-57.

Studies in animals have clearly established that various forms of electrical stimulation positively affect the growth, repair, and remodeling of hard and soft tissue. Although the various electrical stimulation modalities (faradic, capacitive, and inductive) are different in their physics and biochemistry, each produces a variety of biological responses in a wide range of animal models. The level of interest in animal studies of electrical stimulation is rising rapidly, and new understanding, in parallel with studies in vitro and in the clinic, will continue to be gained. The future holds the promise of a wide range of hard and soft tissue conditions being routinely treated by electrical stimulation, based in part on progress in studies in animals.