Tatsuno, Jiro, Marsoner, Hermann J. and Fukuda, Hiroshi. The effects of diffuse currents on focal epileptic discharges. In Wageneder, F.M. and St. Schuy (Eds.) Electrotherap-eutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia. Vol. II, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, Pp. 93-101, 1970.

In a study using 15 rabbits in which the skull was exposed via a burr hole and focal discharges engendered by painting the exposed brain surface with penicillin solution, the authors found that no currents of CES intensity were effective in suppressing epileptic activity, but some evidence was obtained which suggested that the more intense currents (30 mA, 1,000 Hz) altered the frequency of firing in the epileptic focus. They noted that while no CES study had found problems in grand mal epilepsy patients with CES (often finding positive results instead), this study suggested that focal epilepsy may react differently to CES, though the authors admit that “from the intensity of the currents used in this experiment it was not possible to conclude that the current in the CES therapy has such effects on the seizure activity of the epileptic patients.” Abstract courtesy of Ray B. Smith, Ph.D., M.P.A.